From outsized dinosaurs to outrunning hot lava in Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom

  • Written by Michael Milford, Professor, Queensland University of Technology

What happens when you combine genetically engineered dinosaurs, greedy capitalists, and an erupting volcano? A lot of thrills, as experienced in the most recent dinosaur movie Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom. It’s a different tale to the Jurassic movies we’ve been used to: a little darker, and updated for a modern world.

Humans learn from their past mistakes.

Chris Pratt and Bryce Dallas Howard are back as Owen (the velociraptor-taming rogue) and a wiser Claire, alongside faces from the original Jurassic Park movie in Dr Henry Wu (B.D. Wong) and Dr Ian Malcolm (Jeff Goldblum).

Read more: Why blasters miss their mark and other science stunners in Solo: A Star Wars Story

But bringing back dinosaurs from the dead and then genetically engineering them necessarily involves a serve of scientific magic. In this review, we dive into the scientific concepts behind some of the scenes to check whether they are dinosaur dung or movie magic.

Be warned: some modest spoilers lie ahead!

Testing T-Rex’s tallness

From outsized dinosaurs to outrunning hot lava in Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom Chris Pratt not measuring up as well as he normally does. Universal Studios and Amblin Entertainment, Inc. and Legendary Pictures Productions, LLC.

Monster and dinosaur movies are notorious for getting the size of (real) creatures wrong, having inconsistent sizes throughout the movie, or even defying the laws of mass conservation.

So how does the T-Rex portrayal in Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom stack up? Well, the largest T-Rex skeleton found to date is named “Sue” (although we don’t know if it was a male or female dinosaur).

Sue measures 3.66 metres tall at the hips.

We have Chris Pratt for scale, whose height estimates vary but is around 1.88 metres tall (he’s a bit closer to the camera than Rexy but let’s assume they’re the same distance for simplicity).

T-rex hip height = screen height ratio × Chris Pratt Height

= (10.55cm / 4.88cm) × 1.88m

= 4.06m

So that’s about 10% oversized. Factoring in the likelihood of there being T-Rexes larger than Sue (we have only found a small number of T-Rex skeletons, so it’s unlikely we’ve found the largest ones), and the extra skin and muscle, this looks like the film-makers have got the size spot on.

Verdict: Rexy is right.

From outsized dinosaurs to outrunning hot lava in Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom Swimming and snacking. Universal Studios and Amblin Entertainment, Inc. and Legendary Pictures Productions, LLC.

The giant prehistoric aquatic lizard Mosasaurus is also back, mixing it up with surfers this time.

Mosasaurus length = screen length ratio × human height

= 28.08cm / 2.36cm × 1.8m

= 21.4m

The largest species of Mosasaurus reached lengths of 17m: so this is pushing the limits a bit more, at 25% oversized, but acceptable I think for storytelling purposes. I guess prehistoric creatures were sufficiently huge and crazy that even Hollywood didn’t feel the need to make them “larger than life”.

Verdict: Mosasaurus is on the money.

Pteranodon portage?

From outsized dinosaurs to outrunning hot lava in Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom Up, up and away! Universal Studios and Amblin Entertainment, Inc. and Legendary Pictures Productions, LLC.

In one scene, a Pteranodon flies in, picks up a fully armed man, and flies off fairly effortlessly.

Now, we don’t have them around anymore, but we do have large birds of flight such as the bald eagle. The best estimates and observations of a bald eagle put its lifting power at around one-third to one-half of its body weight.

Pteranodon weight is apparently very difficult to estimate, with a range of 25-50kg: making it unlikely they could lift a 90kg male.

But the largest pterosaurs (bigger than in this movie scene) may have weighed as much as 180-250kg - making it plausible that they could, in full flight, pick up and carry an adult man.

Verdict: Struggling to fly.

Mosasaurus maneuvers?

From outsized dinosaurs to outrunning hot lava in Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom Hors d'oeuvres are served. Universal Studios and Amblin Entertainment, Inc. and Legendary Pictures Productions, LLC.

Mosasaurus jumps well out the water as well in this memorable scene. This might seem an incredible feat, but modern humpback whales are only a little bit smaller and can get much of their body out of the water.

Verdict: Plausible.

Cracking chains

From outsized dinosaurs to outrunning hot lava in Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom Movie plots often rely on inadequate restraint of scary things. Universal Studios and Amblin Entertainment, Inc. and Legendary Pictures Productions, LLC.

When the T-Rex wakes up, it snaps a chain connector rather effortlessly. Now the Rex is a massive (around 8 tonnes), powerful creature, but is this realistic, assuming the connector isn’t faulty?

It looks like the connector is held in place by a threaded screw – in which case we can examine the “thread stripping strength” of screws at which point the thread shears off and the connector fails.

Using a thread length of 50mm (estimate), an M8 bolt, and steel with a shear strength of 270MPa, we can calculate the required shear force using this calculator.

We get a force of 144.82kN - or a static force equivalent to holding up a weight of 14.77 tonnes.

Now this weight is heavier than the T-Rex, but the T-Rex isn’t just hanging off the chain. It can exert a dynamic load which is a multiple of its weight: so it shearing the bolt and breaking the connector is quite possible.

Verdict: Off the chain action but plausible.

Laughing off lava

From outsized dinosaurs to outrunning hot lava in Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom My mother always said: if the genetically engineered super predator doesn’t get you, the flows of lava will. Universal Studios and Amblin Entertainment, Inc. and Legendary Pictures Productions, LLC.

There’s a volcano at the core of the plot in the movie, and the main characters are regularly weaving their way in and out of lava flows while dodging dinosaurs. They’re often almost touching the lava, seemingly without any adverse consequences.

Calculating whether this is realistic is difficult: it depends on the size of the lava flow (which varies a lot in the movie), how close the person is, their clothing type, air flow, the angle of exposure, and a range of other factors.

But we can get a back of the envelope idea by looking at what people have done in real life, as shown here and here.

Given that the characters are spending extended periods of time seemingly only a few centimetres from the exposed molten lava, it seems unlikely they would have emerged unscathed like they do in the movie.

Verdict: No lava burn is a little bogus.

The final verdict

Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom is nothing if not entertaining, and a spectacle to be viewed on the big screen. Some of the character development is a little frustrating and the plot has its usual share of holes, but if you sit back and enjoy the ride it’s a great blockbuster to take in this holidays. There are new dinosaurs to marvel at, and one or two plot twists that you might not see coming.

On the general science front, I was pleasantly surprised – the dinosaur sizes were often about right, as was the physics of the dinosaurs’ interaction with their environments (as best we can determine using modern science and animals).

From outsized dinosaurs to outrunning hot lava in Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom They’re so cute when they’re young… Universal Studios and Amblin Entertainment, Inc. and Legendary Pictures Productions, LLC.

Authors: Michael Milford, Professor, Queensland University of Technology

Read more http://theconversation.com/from-outsized-dinosaurs-to-outrunning-hot-lava-in-jurassic-world-fallen-kingdom-97186

Australia Today

What sea creature can attack and win over a blue whale?

Wally Franklin, Researcher and co-director of the The Oceania Project, Southern Cross University

Blue whales are the largest creatures to have ever lived on Earth.ShutterstockThis is an article from Curious Kids, a series for children. The Conversation is asking kids to send in questions they’d like an expert to answer. All questions are welcome – serious, weird or wacky! You might ...

Read more

how leadership instability and revenge became woven into our political fabric

Frank Bongiorno, Professor of History, ANU College of Arts and Social Sciences, Australian National University

Wes Mountain/The Conversation, CC BY-NDBack in 2012, a major study on the selection and removal of party leaders in Anglo parliamentary democracies was published. The book contained a section with the inviting title of “Machiavellian tactics”. Most of the authors’ examples came fro...

Read more

How to move energy policy models beyond bias and vested interests

Shirin Malekpour, Research Leader in Strategic Planning and Futures Studies, Monash Sustainable Development Institute, Monash University

Modelling should be a chance to test your assumptions, not just confirm them.ShutterstockThe Turnbull government’s flagship energy plan, the National Energy Guarantee, was intended to end a decade-long stalemate on energy and climate policy in Australia. Ironically, since its unveiling in Octo...

Read more

University staff and students are at high risk of ill health. Here's how to make sure they can cope

Brad Wright, Sessional Academic (Health & Physical Education), Charles Sturt University

Students and staff at universities have many of the same health risk factors, including poor mental health and alcohol consumption.www.shutterstock.comUniversity students are an at-risk population for many health issues. These include mental health, alcohol and substance use, sexual assault and hara...

Read more

What do your earliest childhood memories say about you?

Penny Van Bergen, Senior Lecturer in Educational Psychology, Macquarie University

The experience "this happened to me" is stronger than "this happened" in memory formation. epicharmus/flickr , CC BY-SAWe experience thousands of events across childhood, and yet as adults we recall only a handful. Some might be “firsts” (our first ice cream, our first day at school), or...

Read more

what is loss aversion and is it real?

Brendan Markey-Towler, Researcher, The University of Queensland

You may still feel losing a wallet more than finding it.ShutterstockA recent study claims a core idea in behavioural economics – loss aversion – is a fallacy. Loss aversion is the theory that the pain of losing something is greater than the pleasure we feel by gaining something equivalen...

Read more

Holidays & Travel

Guide to Travel Necessities for 2018

Sure, it sounds like quite an adventure to hit an open road with nothing but a one-way ticket and an open mind, but the harsh reality is – you won’t...

Top Sightseeing Spots in New Zealand

New Zealand is one of the most fascinating locations for anyone to visit in the world. After all, it’s a place with a variety of unique landscapes, but it isn’t...

Must-Pack Items for a Travel Blogging Boss

As a travel blogger, you get to see and explore so many wonderful destinations and meet various interesting people, but before you embark on a new adventure you need to...

Luxury Camping Adventures Around the World

Perhaps in direct response to the dominance of technology in the modern world, many travelers are feeling a strong draw towards nature. While some are able to fully embrace their...

Dredging works underway Plantation Island

Tourists and workers travelling to popular tourist destination Plantation Island, Fiji, are set to benefit from safer access when marine channel dredging is completed at the end of June 2018...

Top 5 Tips for Traveling With Dogs

Travelling with your dog can be thrilling, but sometimes it can turn into a real nuisance. Unless you know how to properly restrain the pooch, whether it’ll be able to...

Top Island Destinations for 2018

When we picture island destinations in our minds, we often imagine a tropical beach of white sand, a sun lounger laid out in the shade of a line of palm...

Why Car Rental Excess Insurance is a Smart Choice

Some car rental agencies include basic damage cover in the standard rental fee, with the option to add on liability reduction, or excess insurance. The addition of excess insurance normally...

More Than a Third of Australians Feel 'Too Busy' With Work to Take a Holiday

New research from InterContinental Hotel & Resorts has unveiled a large number of Australians (32 percent) are simply too busy with work to take some much-needed rest and relaxation. Almost...

Fashion & Beauty

Groom To Do List

Sorry Aussie Men, you no longer just pay for the alcohol, flowers and marriage license. Times have certainly changed. Wedding Expert shares what Australian Grooms are now expected to do before...

Simple Secrets To A More Confident Smile

We all know just how important first impressions are. After a handshake, what’s one of the first things people will notice about you? It’s your smile. A friendly smile is...

Improve Your Body Confidence and Feel Great

No matter how good you feel about yourself, sometimes you just can’t help but see a few little flaws that seem gigantic to you and make you feel self-conscious. Whether...

First-Timer Tips For Your First Lip Filler Appointment

Getting injectable lip fillers can be a quick and effective way to plump up your smile with minimal drama. They’re a cost-effective and safe way to boost the natural shape...

The Most Common Skin Conditions and How to Deal with Them

We often underestimate the importance of our skin, but as the largest organ in our body, and our primary layer of defense, it is constantly affected by many environmental factors...

Beach Babe Basics: Everything You Need to Look Stylish at the Beach

Summer is right around the corner, and this year, we all should make the best of it. Right now, it is not just about looking stylish on the streets, it...

HEALTH

National Action Plan For Endometriosis Is A Game-Changer For Australian Women

Heba Shaheed, The Pelvic Expert, shares her personal story and expert tips for living with endo... First National Action Plan For Endometriosis Is A Game-Changer For Australian Women   The announcement of the first...

Pre - summer pampering: Australian women are detoxifying themselves in the most “kind-Ly” fashion!

In today’s society we are completely exposed to materials, products and chemicals which we unfortunately have no clue if it’s origins, meaning and purpose. Getting back to basics...

Eye Health Dos and Don'ts

Most people take their eyes for granted and spend little to no time thinking about their eye health until they notice something wrong. This leads to plenty of common and...

Non-invasive Cosmetic Treatments

In a world where everyone is chasing perfection, plastic surgeries have become more and more common to the point where it’s odd if you don’t get one during your life...

My Health Yoga

Carrie-Anne Fields of My Health Yoga has taken her Gold Coast yoga teacher training worldwide. She started her health business 20 years ago aged 22 and has grown into a...

Fit Body 101 - Increase Your Fitness Effectiveness

You have to find some space for physical exercise in your weekly schedule in order to live a good life. Embracing this way of life is very beneficial because it...

LIFE STYLE

Add a little colour to your move - and life!

How a little ‘colour’ and planning can take your Move, and make it a more enjoyable one Colour plays a huge role in our lives, it can take us up, or...

6 Simple Rules for Redesigning Your Kitchen

How do you feel about your kitchen? Well, if you feel like your home needs a bit of lifting up, one of the best and most effective places to start...

Dog Flea Allergy

Severe itchy skin disease in dogs causes Flea bite hypersensitivity. The itch is as a result of an allergic reaction to the saliva of the flea which is injected into...

5 Ways to Turn Your Bedroom into a True Zen Retreat

The bedroom should be our little sanctuary where we come to relax after a long day of work. However, in order to be able to unwind all the accumulated stress...

Things to Consider when Deciding on your Wedding Flowers for the Big Day

Choosing the wedding flowers is a complicated process where you have to take into account many elements, from the wedding dress to the wedding theme. You can discover in this...

Renovating tips for your house

There are very few property owners who move into a house where they don’t want to make any changes. Alterations are almost inevitable every time you move-house, but alterations can...

FOOD & DINING

Morning greens: the breakfast skincare regime

It’s safe to assume that most Aussies fail to eat enough greens. Although this was momentarily resolved with the rise and popularity of the green juice movement, the lack of...

Best Hidden Gem Hong Kong Restaurants

You finally find yourself enjoying the endless beauties of China and this fascinating city. In a place with so much variety, all your senses will be wide awake, and your...

JOHNNY DI FRANCESCO NAMED OFFICIAL AMBASSADOR OF EAT STREET MELBOURNE

Johnny Di Francesco, world champion pizzaiolo and owner of Melbourne’s Gradi Group of restaurants, is excited to announce he has been named official ambassador for Eat Street Melbourne 2018. As Ambassador...

The best Mother's Day gift EVER!

Whether it’s to celebrate a special occasion, or just wind down at the end of a long day, there’s nothing much better than pouring yourself a glass (or two…) of...

Sing for Your Supper at Chargrill Charlie’s

To celebrate the final curtain call of the Barden Bellas, Chargrill Charlie’s is giving you the chance to Sing for your Supper! Show off your best acapella vocals to win...

MAKE IT WINE TIME, ANY TIME

Whether it’s to celebrate a special occasion, or just wind down at the end of a long day, there’s nothing much better than pouring yourself a glass (or two…) of...